Posted in Film and Literature Analyses, The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills

The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills Part IX

By: Bryan Ricardo Marini Quintana

Star Wars Episode VI Return Of The Jedi, directed by Richard Marquand

A Bridging Of The Story: The Skywalker Tragedy

In behind the scenes footage of Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace (1999), George Lucas summarized The Hero’s Journey and The Family Tragedy of The Skywalkers by saying that the story was about:

“… Anakin… duplicating the Luke Skywalker role, but you see the echo of where it’s all gonna go… it’s like poetry… they rhyme… every stanza kind of rhymes with the last one, hopefully it’ll work.”

The Hero’s Journey of father and son parallel each other in Episode I The Phantom Menace and Episode IV A New Hope, with Anakin and Luke Skywalker abandoning the familiar to embark on an adventure into the unknown, becoming Jedi Knights that overcome challenges by carrying the burden of responsibility to fulfill Destiny and embrace their Doom. Through The Family Tragedy, the story of a father falling to the Dark Side and turning into a Sith echoes with that of his son embracing the Light Side and becoming a Jedi, as they confront each other to complete their journey. Although Anakin and Luke Skywalker tread along the same path in the first chapter of their journey, in the latter episodes their choices lead them towards a different Doom but a similar Destiny.

Star Wars Episode V The Empire Strikes Back, directed by Irvin Kershner

On one side, the journey of Luke Skywalker continues in Episode V The Empire Strikes Back and ends in Episode VI Return of the Jedi, with the hero becoming a fully realized Jedi Knight who rejects the temptations of the Dark Side and saves the galaxy from the tyrannical Galactic Empire. Through the guidance of mentor figures such as Yoda and Obi-Wan, Luke learns the ways of the Force and becomes a Jedi. Alongside, with supporting characters such as Leia Organa, Han Solo and Chewbacca, the hero forms bonds of friendship and finds meaning in the cause of the Rebellion. However, when Luke has a vision of his friends in danger, he rushes in to be the hero without finishing his training. Attempting to dissuade him, Yoda and Obi-Wan warn Luke of acting rashly over an uncertain future that could place him in peril as well. Disregarding their wisdom, the hero falls to his impulses and is beaten by Darth Vader, who cuts off Luke’s hand, revealing that he is his father. Fortunately, the hero survives and recognizes his mistake, opting to patiently finish his training to then embark on a rescue mission of his friends. With newly gained wisdom, Luke saves his friends from the clutches of the vile gangster, Jabba the Hutt. Later on, he returns to Yoda and Obi-Wan, who advise him on confronting The Emperor, with the hero convinced that he can redeem his father. At the height of the climactic battle in the forest moon of Endor, Luke fights Vader in an attempt to save him from The Emperor’s chains. Clashing in a lightsaber duel, the hero is tempted by The Emperor to give in to his hatred and strike down his father to replace him. When Vader discovers Luke has a twin sister, he uses this against him by saying that Leia will fall to the Dark Side. This triggers the hero’s anger as he beats his father and upon striking the death blow he halts, refusing to become Vader. Throwing away his lightsaber, Luke stands against The Emperor unveiling the white underneath his black suit, with the hero becoming a Jedi who chooses to reject the Dark Side and fulfills Destiny by embracing his Doom. Climactically, The Emperor strikes the Jedi Knight with lightning, killing him slowly and agonizingly, with The Hero’s Journey being completed when Vader redeems himself by overthrowing his master and saving his son. Hence, Luke’s purpose is accomplished, not to defeat The Emperor by himself, but to save his father, who seizes to be Sith Lord Darth Vader and returns to be Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker.

Star Wars Episode III Revenge Of The Sith, directed by George Lucas

Meanwhile, the journey of Anakin Skywalker continues in Episode II Attack Of The Clones and ends in Episode III Revenge Of The Sith, as the hero becomes a Sith by falling into the temptation of the Dark Side and damns the galaxy with the birth of The Galactic Empire. Due to the loss of Qui-Gon Jinn, Anakin stumbles to learn the ways of the Force by being deprived of a father figure to call him on his wrongdoings. Occupied with the Jedi Order, Yoda doesn’t watch over the hero’s development, entrusting Obi-Wan to train him, who has a brotherly bond with his apprentice, leaving none to regulate Anakin’s recklessness or impulses. This leads to the hero forming bonds of friendship with supporting characters such as Padme Amidala and Obi-Wan, who give him meaning with the ideals of The Galactic Republic and Jedi Order. However, when Anakin has a vision of his loved ones in peril, he rushes in to avoid these from becoming a reality. Overwhelmed by pressure of being the prophesied chosen one, burdened with the demands or neglects of the Jedi Order and lacking the proper guidance, the hero doesn’t seek wisdom, instead placing himself and those he loves in danger by acting rashly. Thrusting himself to save Shmi Skywalker, Anakin fails and watches his mother die, with no one to console him, the hero lashes out in anger, slaughtering the tribe of Tusken Raiders. Later on, in a duel with Sith Lord Count Dooku, Anakin hastily strikes and loses his hand. Thereafter, the hero marries in secret with Padme Amidala, violating the ideals of the Jedi Order, forbidding intimacy. Further on, Anakin shows a lack of patience by being frustrated with becoming a member of the Jedi Council, but not granted the rank of master. Ultimately, this unchecked erratic behavior that none have cautioned against, leaves the hero learning nothing from his failings, leading Anakin to find solace and validation through Chancellor Palpatine, a Sith who steers the hero astray to damnation. Through Palpatine, Anakin forms a fatherly bond, with a Sith Lord being the mentor figure of a Jedi Knight. Playing both sides of the war, the Sith Lord plots the demise of the Jedi using two personas, leading The Galactic Republic as Chancellor Palpatine, whilst puppeteering The Separatist Alliance as Darth Sidious, grooming the hero to be his new apprentice. Once again haunted by visions, Anakin sees an uncertain future in which his pregnant wife dies along with their unborn children, as the hero desperately acts to save their lives by bargaining with the Dark Side. Since the Jedi provide no comfort or solution to Anakin’s worries, the hero seeks Chancellor Palpatine, who unveils himself as Sith Lord Darth Sidious, promising the Jedi Knight that together they will unlock the secret to avoid death. Fooled by his wicked promise of acquiring great power to cheat death through the Dark Side, Anakin abandons the Light Side and becomes a slave to Darth Sidious’ will. Seizing to be Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker, the hero is granted a new identity by his master, reborn into the villain Sith Lord Darth Vader. Alongside, Chancellor Palpatine ignites a false crisis by accusing the Jedi of attempting a coup, proclaiming himself as The Emperor. Meanwhile, Vader is sent to eradicate the Jedi Order, as concurrently the democratic institutions of the Republic are dissolved, reborn with the tyrannical regime of the Empire. Thereafter, in the climactic duel between Vader and Obi-Wan amidst the volcano planet of Mustafar, the master defeats his former apprentice, leaving him mutilated and burnt by lava. Consequently, Vader is imprisoned within a suit of armor that keeps him alive, whilst his wife gives birth to Luke and Leia, as The Emperor fulfills his bargain by draining the life of Padme and granting it to his apprentice. Hence, struggling to thwart Destiny, Anakin turns into a Sith and allows his vision to become reality, as the hero born a slave becomes a servant to Darth Sidious, forever haunted by his choice that lead to his Doom.

Star Wars Episode III Revenge Of The Sith, directed by George Lucas

At its core, The Skywalker Tragedy is about the story of Anakin Skywalker falling into temptation by turning into a Sith who damns the galaxy to tyranny, whilst Luke Skywalker rejects the Dark Side by becoming a Jedi who redeems Darth Vader, together fulfilling Destiny. The story echoes profoundly in Episode III Revenge Of The Sith and Episode VI Return Of The Jedi, in the moments Anakin falls to the Dark Side and when he is redeemed to the Light Side. In the final chapter of each trilogy, Anakin is faced with a choice that can lead the galaxy to perdition or salvation, standing in between Luke and The Emperor in Return Of The Jedi, while being in between Mace Windu and Darth Sidious in Revenge Of The Sith. By the end of their duel, the Sith Lord lies beaten, as Anakin intervenes and Darth Sidious pleads him to spare his life, promising the power to save the one he loves. Standing triumphantly the Jedi Master doesn’t want to spare his life for a trial of his crimes, instead yearning to kill Darth Sidious, casting away any mercy and nobility. Previously, the chosen one faced a similar dilemma when rescuing Chancellor Palpatine, beating Count Dooku and intending to imprison him for a trial, but being encouraged to strike down the Sith Lord. Although hesitant at first, Anakin is swayed by Palpatine to kill him, as the chosen one expresses regret of the deed by saying it didn’t abide to how a Jedi should behave, with the Sith Lord responding in Star Wars Episode III Revenge Of The Sith (2005): “He was too dangerous to be kept alive.” Echoing these words, as Darth Sidious lies defeated, Mace Windu counters Anakin by saying in Star Wars Episode III Revenge Of The Sith (2005): “He’s too dangerous to be left alive.” On one side, the cowardice and wickedness of the Sith are unveiled, with Darth Sidious begging to be saved while being in the same position Dooku was in. Meanwhile, the hypocrisy and dishonesty of the Jedi are unmasked, as Mace Windu utters the same words of Darth Sidious, with the codes of these religious creeds being bent at their behest, leading to Anakin’s reality being broken by concluding that there’s no difference between noble knights and power-hungry sorcerers. Without hesitation, Mace Windu raises his arm to strike down the Sith Lord, with Anakin instinctively igniting his lightsaber, disillusioned by the Jedi he looked up to, as the chosen one intercedes by opting to acquire the power to cheat death. Decisively, Anakin cuts off Mace Windu’s hand and damns the galaxy by sparing the life of Darth Sidious, as the Sith Lord drops his weak act to strike lightning at the defenseless Jedi, turning the hero into his apprentice who overthrows the noble knights along with democracy.

Star Wars Episode VI Return Of The Jedi, directed by Richard Marquand

In a poetic juxtaposition, at the end of Return Of The Jedi, Vader witnesses The Emperor torture a defeated Luke, who agonizingly looks at his father, begging to save him. Beholding his son’s triumph over the temptation of the Dark Side, Vader realizes that Luke prevailed where he failed, with Anakin being renewed, liberating the galaxy and saving his child by overthrowing The Emperor. With this final heroic deed, Vader’s chains are broken, reborn as Anakin Skywalker, who chooses freely to fulfill Destiny by embracing his Doom. Dying from his injuries, the father pleads to be unmasked, gazing triumphantly and peacefully at his son, as he passes away to be one with the Force. At the end of The Skywalker Tragedy, father and son bear the burden of responsibility, completing The Mythical Hero’s Journey by becoming Jedi who defeat the Sith, saving the galaxy through their sacrifice.

Star Wars Episode VI Return Of The Jedi, directed by Richard Marquand

Overall, myths, mystery and the unknown, found within the infinity of space sparked the imagination of George Lucas as he lived at home in California from an early age. At that moment, the soon-to-be filmmaker wondered as soon-to-be Jedi Knight Luke Skywalker did, with both yearning for adventure to escape the confines around them by gazing on the horizon at the binary sunset for Destiny to call them. Reminiscing on The Story of Star Wars, in an article titled: Mythic Discovery Within The Inner Reaches of Outer Space: Joseph Campbell Meets George Lucas, Part 2, by Lucas Seastrom, from the official Star Wars Website, The Filmmaker said in 1997:

“When I was in college, for two years I studied anthropology […] myths, stories from other cultures. It seemed to me that there was no longer a lot of mythology in our society, the kind of stories we tell ourselves and our children, which is the way our heritage is passed down. Westerns used to provide that, but there weren’t Westerns anymore. I wanted to find a new form. So I looked around, and tried to figure out where myths come from. It comes from the borders of society, from out there, from places of mystery […] And I thought, space. Because back then space was a great source of mystery.”

Works Cited:

Barson, Michael. George Lucas. Encyclopedia Britannica,

Beete, Paulette. George Lucas. National Endowment for the Arts, July 24, 2013,

Bill Moyers Staff. The Mythology of ‘Star Wars’ with George Lucas. Bill Moyers, June 18, 1999,

Mark, Joshua. Mythology. World History Encyclopedia, October 31, 2018,

Merriam-Webster Team. Anthropology. Merriam-Webster,

Merriam-Webster Team. Cultural Anthropology. Merriam-Webster,

Miyamoto, Ken. Exploring The 12 Stages Of The Hero’s Journey. ScreenCraft,

Seastrom, Lucas. Mythic Discovery Within The Inner Reaches Of Outer Space: Joseph Campbell Meets George Lucas, Part 2. Star Wars, November 6, 2015,  space-joseph-campbell-meets-george-lucas-part-2

Segal, Robert. Joseph Campbell. Encyclopedia Britannica,

Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope.

Directed by George Lucas, 20th Century Fox, 1977.

Star Wars Episode II Attack Of The Clones.

Directed by George Lucas, 20th Century Fox, 2002.

Star Wars Episode VI Return Of The Jedi.

Directed by Richard Marquand, 20th Century Fox, 1983.

Star Wars Episode III Revenge Of The Sith.

Directed by George Lucas, 20th Century Fox, 2005.

Star Wars Episode V The Empire Strikes Back.

Directed by Irvin Kershner, 20th Century Fox, 1980.

Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace.

Directed by George Lucas, 20th Century Fox, 1999.

The University Of Manchester Staff. Social Anthropology. The University Of Manchester,,with%20such%20questions%20as%3A%20how%20societies%20are%20organised%3B

Your Dictionary Team. George Lucas. Your Dictionary,

Your Dictionary Team. Joseph Campbell. Your Dictionary,

Posted in Film and Literature Analyses, The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills

The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills Part VIII

By: Bryan Ricardo Marini Quintana

Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace, directed by George Lucas

Anakin Skywalker’s Arc

Alongside, The 12 Stages of The Hero’s Journey are manifested as well in the First Chapter of The Prequel Trilogy, Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace, through the story of Anakin Skywalker. A Long Time Ago In A Galaxy Far, Far Away, the hero finds himself in The Ordinary World, living subjugated to slavery and comforted by his mother, Shmi Skywalker, on the desert planet of Tatooine. Suddenly, Jedi Knight Qui-Gon Jinn alongside his apprentice Obi-Wan Kenobi, find themselves stranded on a mission to escort Queen Amidala safely to the planet Coruscant, capital of The Galactic Republic. Looking to repair their ship, the Jedi Knight enters a shop where he meets Anakin, sensing that the child is powerful with the Force. Through their bond, Qui-Gon uncovers that Anakin was born by will of the Force, believing him to be the chosen one that the Jedi prophecy foretells will defeat the Sith. Realizing the predicament of the Jedi Knight and encouraged by him, the hero receives a Call to Adventure, feeling compelled to aid these strangers get off planet. Enlisting in a pod race, the child wins the prize money needed to fix their ship and is freed from slavery after Qui-Gon wins a gamble against his master Watto, who bet wrongly that Anakin would lose. Tragically, Shmi Skywalker isn’t freed from slavery, leaving her son to choose whether to leave with his new mentor or to stay behind with his mother. Even though the hero is keen on becoming a Jedi and Shmi pleads him to go with Qui-Gon, in the Refusal To The Call, the child wavers because he doesn’t want to abandon his mother. Only after Shmi reassures Anakin that she will find happiness knowing he is free to choose his Destiny, does the child let go of his mother. Turning his back on Shmi, Anakin faces Qui-Gon, deciding to train in the ways of the Force, with the Jedi Knight swearing to take care of the child, being not only a mentor but a father figure that gifts wisdom for the journey ahead in Meeting With The Mentor. Thereafter, the hero leaves Tatooine by mounting a ship in Crossing The Threshold, traveling to Coruscant and entering The Extraordinary World.

At the stage of Test, Allies and Enemies, Anakin’s abilities are tested in the Jedi Temple, with the council disapproving of his training. Prominently, Master Yoda expresses concern over the child’s attachment to his mother, foreseeing that Anakin’s fear of losing her will lead to anger, then hatred and ultimately suffering, being the hero’s undoing. However, Qui-Gon protests this decision and vouches for Anakin by recommending Obi-Wan to be promoted as Jedi Knight while offering to take the child as his new apprentice, convinced he’s the chosen one. After much deliberation, Anakin’s fate is left unresolved due to Queen Amidala failing to convince the senate to act against the invasion of her planet and opting to liberate Naboo with help from Qui-Gon Jinn and Obi-Wan Kenobi. Joining them in this endeavor is the hero, as he enters The Approach To The Inmost Cave, going into the occupied planet to liberate it from The Trade Federation, with a battle ensuing as the heroes scramble to shut down the droid army. Approaching the hangar bay, pilots mount their starfighters to destroy the battleship, entering The Ordeal as Sith apprentice Darth Maul emerges. Threatening to end the heroes, Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan fight off against this foe, allowing Queen Amidala and Anakin to escape. However, the Jedi Knight is slain whilst his apprentice defeats Darth Maul. Simultaneously, the hero finds a safe hiding spot inside an N-1 starfighter, with R2-D2 hopping on board, as the engine accidentally starts and takes him off to battle in space. Without his mentor figure, the child must rely on his newfound friends and abilities to confront the peril ahead. Consequently, in The Reward, Anakin joins the struggle to liberate Naboo by using his skills as a pilot. Upon arriving at the fight on the battleship, in The Road Back, R2-D2 warns the hero that they are in danger and must return to the planet, but Anakin refuses to abandon his friends, choosing to bravely face Destiny. This leads to The Resurrection, where the hero destroys the battleship, deactivating the droid army and saving the inhabitants of Naboo. Thereafter, in The Return With The Elixir, the heroes celebrate in a parade, with Anakin being rewarded by Obi-Wan, who vouches for him to be trained under his guidance, as the slave turned ace pilot completes his journey and takes the first steps towards becoming a Jedi.

Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace, directed by George Lucas
Posted in Film and Literature Analyses, The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills

The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills Part VII

By: Bryan Ricardo Marini Quintana

Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope, directed by George Lucas

Luke Skywalker’s Arc

The 12 Stages of The Hero’s Journey manifest in the First Chapter of The Original Trilogy, Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope, through the story of Luke Skywalker. A Long Time Ago In A Galaxy Far, Far away, the hero finds himself in The Ordinary World, living within the confines of a moisture farm on the desert planet of Tatooine. In this desolate place, Luke dreams of venturing into the galaxy in search of adventure, but Uncle Owen dissuades the hero and instead wants him to stay home as a farmer. However, here Luke receives a Call to Adventure, meeting C3-PO and R2-D2, who’ve landed on Tatooine escaping from Imperial pursuit. Within the memory of R2-D2 is a message from Princess Leia Organa, asking Obi-Wan Kenobi to aid her in this desperate hour, propelling the hero to start his journey. After meeting the wise figure of Obi-Wan, Luke fears the peril ahead in the Refusal To The Call, being reluctant to accompany the old Jedi Master in aiding The Rebel Alliance in its struggle against The Galactic Empire. Consequently, in Meeting The Mentor, Obi-Wan gives the hero his father’s lightsaber, offering to train the farm boy in the ways of the Force to become a Jedi. After finding his home destroyed by the Empire alongside his relatives dead, Luke heeds the words of the old Jedi Master, embracing Destiny. Therefore, the hero accompanies Obi-Wan on a perilous journey to Alderaan, delivering vital information carried by the droids on how to destroy the Death Star, a Battle Station that can wipe out planets, to Leia’s adoptive father, Bail Organa. In Crossing The Threshold, the farm boy ventures into Mos Eisley Spaceport in search of a pilot to sweep him off Tatooine, setting foot in The Extraordinary World.

At Mos Eisley, Luke encounters Test, Allies and Enemies, with Imperial Sand Troopers interrogating him, along with an entire garrison scouting the Spaceport in search of the droids. Inside the Cantina, a place of scum and villainy, the hero and mentor encounter trouble with a few locals, but meet Han Solo and Chewbacca, agreeing to give them passage to Alderaan. Upon arriving at Alderaan, the heroes and misfits discover that it’s been wiped out by the Death Star, getting captured by the Battle Station. This leads to Luke breaking out Princess Leia, as they attempt to escape the Empire with Obi-Wan’s help in The Approach To The Inmost Cave. Afterward, in The Ordeal, the old Jedi Master sacrifices himself to allow the heroes and misfits to survive, as they board the Millennium Falcon. Losing his mentor, now the hero must rely on his newfound friends and what he’s learned from the journey to defeat the Empire. This leads to The Reward, where Luke decides to join The Rebel Alliance in a desperate attempt to destroy the Death Star. However, before boarding his X-wing fighter the hero is confronted by smuggler Han Solo, who persuades Luke to abandon the cause and escape with him. At this stage of The Road Back, the hero refuses Han Solo’s offer and instead strengthens his resolve by getting into the cockpit of the X-wing fighter, choosing to bravely face the Empire. Thereafter, as the battle on the Death Star’s Trench Run ensues, when all hope seems lost, Luke heeds Obi-Wan’s words of wisdom from the afterlife, telling him to let go and trust in the Force. In The Resurrection, the hero lets go of the targeting computer abord his X-wing fighter and fires the torpedoes by trusting the will of the Force, destroying the Death Star. Hence, in The Return With The Elixir, Luke arrives at the rebel base on Yavin IV to be greeted as a hero in a ceremony in which Princess Leia gives him a medal, as the farm boy turned ace pilot completes his journey and takes the first steps towards becoming a Jedi.

Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope, directed by George Lucas
Posted in Film and Literature Analyses, The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills

The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills Part VI

By: Bryan Ricardo Marini Quintana

Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope, directed by George Lucas

The 12 Stages Of The Journey

In the article: Exploring The 12 Stages Of The Hero’s Journey, by Ken Miyamoto, the path to fulfill Destiny of Luke and Anakin Skywalker is divided into phases that propel the protagonist into an adventure. Firstly, the hero finds himself or herself in the confines of The Ordinary World, where the protagonist lives in comfort, waiting to be swept by adventure. Thereafter, the hero receives a Call to Adventure, leading to the questioning of his or her reality that pushes the protagonist to pursue a journey. These fears and insecurities of the character are known as the Refusal To The Call, in which a hero hesitates on whether to take the next step, being afraid of bearing the burden of responsibility. In Meeting The Mentor, the protagonist is introduced to a wise figure who gives advice, provides essential information and gifts an important item for the journey ahead. Then comes an in-between worlds stage known as Crossing The Threshold, in which the hero leaves The Ordinary World to begin his or her journey in The Extraordinary World.

Afterward, the protagonist faces challenges in Test, Allies and Enemies, being hindered or aided by new characters, places and occurrences. Surpassing these trials, the hero is experienced enough to undertake The Approach To The Inmost Cave, confronting the main conflict by using what’s been learned to overcome obstacles and find a solution to the problem.  However, in The Ordeal, a plan fails and the character loses something or someone of importance, going through a crisis that reasserts his or her resolve to fulfill Destiny. Consequently, in The Reward, the hero is gifted an item or gains knowledge that helps him or her defeat the antagonist. Nonetheless, in The Road Back, the protagonist is presented with an opportunity to give up, but instead, his or her conviction is strengthened for the final trial. Then, in The Resurrection, the hero uses lessons, items and skills acquired in the journey to resolve the main conflict. Finally, in The Return With The Elixir, the protagonist completes his or her purpose triumphantly and returns to The Ordinary World with newfound wisdom from The Extraordinary World.

Posted in Film and Literature Analyses, The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills

The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills Part V

By: Bryan Ricardo Marini Quintana

Star Wars Episode V The Empire Strikes Back, directed by Irvin Kershner

Myths Before The Skywalkers

In an article by Ancient History Encyclopedia, titled Mythology, Joshua J. Mark discussed the meaning behind myth. Being a fundamental element of cultures, myths were created and passed on from generation to generation, by societies that sought to understand the nature of the world. They pondered questions such as: Where did we come from? How did our way of life come to be? Why did events occur in this manner? Searching for answers, societies became civilizations by finding meaning in myths that granted an identity, which formed cultures. Hence, for a myriad of civilizations, these stories became the primary source to explain how their people originated and how their social and cultural way of life came to be, giving significance to a chaotic world that was made comprehensible through myths.

Derived from the Greek word “mythos”, Mythology means in direct translation, Story. As a field of study, Mythology researches and interprets a compendium of stories that deal with the human condition. Amongst these are: the dualities of good and evil, the origins and prophesized end of humanity, the meaning of suffering and happiness, the meaning of life and death, along with the deeds of mortals and gods. Therefore, these myths hold the beliefs and customs of a civilization in a given time and space.

Furthermore, in the same article by Ancient History Encyclopedia, titled Mythology, Joshua J. Mark presented the differing types of myths. Firstly, Etiological Myths seek to answer the why and how, giving an explanation on the nature of the world. Defined as being an origin story, this myth illustrates why the world is a certain way and how it came to be.

(Peter Paul Rubens, Saturn Devouring His Son, 1636)
(Saturn is Roman for the Greek Cronos)

In Greek Mythology, the etiological story of existence began in the void inhabited by Chaos, who made Nyx. Their union conceived Erebus who took Nyx as his betrothed, having Aether and Hemera. Mating, the siblings birthed Gaia (Earth), who created Uranus (Sky). Both shaped titans and cyclops, with Gaia loving her creation but Uranus hating it. Seeking to protect her children, Gaia rebelled with the aid of her son, Cronos. This led to Uranus being castrated by his son and from his blood and flesh various beings and creatures were born. Thereafter, Cronos mated with his sibling Rhea, who gave birth to the Twelve Olympians. However, following the footsteps of his father, Cronos despised his children due to fear of being overthrown by them, devouring each one as Rhea birthed them. Consequently, Rhea became horrified and gave birth to Zeus in secret, growing up to be a powerful god who defeated Cronos and freed his kin from the titan’s belly.

Moreover, the etiological story of Pandora’s Box explained the nature of how suffering was unleashed upon mankind. Here, the titan Prometheus, mankind’s creator and protector, defiled Zeus by stealing fire and gifted mortals knowledge. Enraged, Zeus plotted to destroy mankind for this treachery and fashioned the first woman, as the gods of Olympus molded Pandora with beauty and speech. Thereafter, Zeus sent Pandora to mankind, with a sealed jar that contained every conceivable evil. Finally, Pandora opened the jar, pouring out diseases and miseries that plagued mankind.

(Marten Eskil Winge, Thor’s Fight with the Giants, 1872)

Meanwhile, in Norse Mythology the etiological story behind creation began in an abyss, with only the Ice Realm of Niflheim and the Fire Realm of Muspelheim that formed through the mixing of water drops and fiery heat the giant Ymir. Thereafter, the god Odin alongside his brothers slayed Ymir, shaping from the giant’s dismembered limbs The World Tree of Yggdrasil and The Nine Realms. Hence, Odin ruled alongside Frigg as the chief god and goddess over Asgard (Heaven), with mankind under the protection of Thor, who inhabited Midgard (Middle Earth), and the damned souls suffered in Hel (Underworld) under the dominion of Loki’s daughter, as Baldur became haunted by visions of his death, a warning sign to the Aesir and Vanir deities that the predestined end of all creation drew near, Ragnarök.

(Michelangelo, The Fall and Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, 1509–1510)

Alongside, in Christianity, the etiological story of how the world was formed is told in The Bible. By reading The Book of Genesis, it’s explained how God created the world in six days and rested on the seventh. This gave humanity an identity by illustrating how God made man and woman in his own image. Later on, Adam and Eve ate a fruit from the forbidden tree of knowledge, gaining consciousness and becoming awake. By heeding the deceitful promise of Satan, a fallen angel in the guise of a snake, of acquiring a godlike vision with a bite of the forbidden fruit, Adam and Eve caved into their darkest and deepest impulses. Upon devouring the fruit, both committed sin and recognized their nakedness, being ashamed of themselves. Realizing they had disobeyed God’s command; Adam and Eve hid in fear. Nevertheless, this proved futile as they were found and exiled from The Garden of Eden, with the history of humanity and their condition of suffering commencing since the banishment from Paradise.

(Franz von Matsch, The Triumph of Achilles, 1892)

Thereafter, Historical Myths recite an episode of the past from a civilization, embellishing the original event. Although the story has a basis on historical events, figures and locations, there are dramatized and romanticized. Examples of such are found in The Hebrew Bible along with Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. Firstly, the story of Abraham provided an answer to the origins of the Jewish People, who were bestowed with a foundational figure that made a covenant with God, making them His people, the chosen nation that would inherit the promised land of Judea. Meanwhile, the kidnapping of Helen by Paris lead to the Siege of Troy, in which Greeks and Trojans fought for the coveted woman, as the event is told through the exploits of Demigod Achilles and the journey of King Odysseus.

(Léon Auguste Adolphe Belly, Ulysses and the Sirens, 1867)
(Ulysses is Latin for the Greek Odysseus)

Lastly, Psychological Myths narrate a journey undertaken from the ordinary world to the extraordinary world, representing a psychological need to balance the external world with an internal consciousness. In this story, a hero embarks on a voyage traversing through trials and tribulations that will lead to uncovering an identity. Primarily, the hero’s fate will be determined by the ability to carry the burden of responsibility and reach Destiny to become. Hence, through this expedition the audience relates to the hero’s struggle, focusing on the morals and values held by the protagonist that determine his or her thoughts and actions.

(Charles François Jalabert, The Plague of Thebes, 1842)

An example of a psychological story is the Greek Play of Oedipus The King, a tragedy by Sophocles. In the story, King Oedipus was tasked with lifting a plague from the city of Thebes. To resolve this crisis, he sought the oracle for guidance, being told that to repel the curse he must find the murderer of the former King Laius. Previously, at an early age, Oedipus had fled his home in fear of a prophecy that he would kill his father, with Laius abandoning his son due to the same reason. However, neither of them escaped the prophecy, as Oedipus unknowingly murdered his father at a crossroads. In the unraveling of the tragedy, the protagonist became horrified upon discovering that he had committed patricide and was in an incestuous relationship with his wife Jocasta, that turned out to be his mother. Therefore, Oedipus ironically resolved the misfortune of Thebes by finding that he was the murderer, making him a tragic hero who became tormented by Destiny and gouged his eyes as punishment.

Another psychological story is the Norse Poetic Legend of The Saga of the Volsungs. In the story, Odin punished Sigi for killing a slave, cursing his family lineage. Tragedy struck when Signy, daughter of King Volsung, had been promised against her will to King Siggeir. When King Volsung and his sons traveled to the kingdom of King Siggeir, they had been warned by Signy that treachery would befall them, as her father died and her brothers were imprisoned. Devoured one after the other by a wolf, the brothers of Signy were eaten, save the youngest, Sigmund, who survived with help from his sister. Later on, dealing with a witch, Signy exchanged appearances with her and engaged in an intimate relationship with Sigmund, becoming pregnant with Sinfjotli. Thereafter, she returned to King Siggeir and transformed back to herself, leaving the task of raising her son to her brother. With training from his father, Sinfjotli became a man, aiding the siblings in avenging the Volsung family by killing King Siggeir and restoring their throne. Hence, the bloodline of the Volsungs became the driving force of the narrative that embroiled King Volsung then Sigmund and finally Sinfjotli in a generational conflict in which a son inherited the sin of his father.

Star Wars Episode III Revenge Of The Sith, directed by George Lucas

Through Etiological and Historical Myths, The Story of Star Wars acquired the origins of its universe and conflict in the religious creeds of Jedi and Sith that wield the mythical power of the Force. Clashing through a millennium, these noble knights and power-hungry sorcerers resemble the dualities of good and evil within mythology, that are embodied through characters such as Jedi Master Yoda and Sith Lord Darth Sidious. This eternal duel between Jedi and Sith is fought in The Clone Wars and The Galactic Civil War, coming to a climactic end in The Family Tragedy of The Skywalkers.

However, Psychological Myths provided the main source of influence to Star Wars with The Mythical Hero’s Journey. In the stories of Oedipus The King and The Saga of the Volsungs, The Family Tragedy of the heroes had them undertake a journey from the known world to the unknown world. On one side, King Oedipus fulfilled Destiny by saving Thebes of its curse through uncovering the culprit behind King Laius’ murder. In a twist of irony, the protagonist discovered that he killed his father, bearing responsibility and enacting punishment on himself. Meanwhile, the Volsungs struggled through a generational conflict against King Siggeir, which involved grandfather, father and son. Therefore, Sinfjotli inherited the curse of the family, but fulfilled Destiny by avenging his kindred.

The journeys of Anakin and Luke Skywalker are evidently influenced by Psychological Myths, with The Hero’s Journey and The Family Tragedy being present in the story of a father that falls to the Dark Side and damns existence by turning into a Sith, whilst his son embraces the Light Side and achieves Destiny by becoming a Jedi. Nevertheless, Luke Skywalker doesn’t become a Jedi to destroy his father, but rather uses his newfound purpose to save Darth Vader by stripping away the dark within and unearthing the light of Anakin Skywalker, leading to the salvation of the galaxy.

Posted in Film and Literature Analyses, The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills

The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills Part IV

By: Bryan Ricardo Marini Quintana

Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace, directed by George Lucas

Anthropology Reinforcing Mythology

Through Mythology, George Lucas crafted the story that these background elements revolved around. At the forefront, is the character of Anakin Skywalker who begins The Family Tragedy by falling to the temptation of the Dark Side. As this protagonist symbolizes the antithesis of The Hero’s Journey, in which he doesn’t become and fulfill Destiny, but rather is undone and damns existence. Discovered by the Jedi, Anakin Skywalker trains in the ways of the Light Side of the Force, being foreseen as a prophesied hero who will bring balance by defeating the Sith. However, the chosen one constantly falls into temptation by allowing his impulsiveness to control him across the journey, growing closer with the Dark Side and drifting from the Light Side. Summarizing his journey, in Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace (1999), Master Yoda says: “Fear is the path to the dark side. Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.” In The Prequel Trilogy, Anakin Skywalker never learns to let go of those he loves and doesn’t recognize or correct his failings. Most worrying is the absence of a father figure to call out Anakin Skywalker’s mistakes, as the chosen one ultimately proves to be the Jedi’s demise. By the end of his story, Anakin Skywalker becomes Darth Vader, a Sith who commits sin and gives himself to the servitude of the vile Darth Sidious.

Star Wars Episode V The Empire Strikes Back, directed by Irvin Kershner

Afterward, The Family Tragedy continues with Luke Skywalker, who learns the ways of the Light Side of the Force and becomes a Jedi Knight, being the direct embodiment of The Hero’s Journey who fulfills Destiny. Although Luke Skywalker shows identical traits as his father, such as impulsiveness, recklessness and a neglect to let go of those he loves, after trials and tribulations the protagonist acknowledges and corrects his failings. In The Original Trilogy, the protagonist inherits the sin of his father and trains to become a Jedi who carries the burden of responsibility, saving the galaxy. Consequently, Luke Skywalker lives in a galaxy ruled by the tyrannical Galactic Empire, which rose to power when the democratic Galactic Republic was overthrown by his father. Guiding him is the mentor figure who calls out his failings, with Master Yoda providing lessons to avoid losing the hero to temptation. In the crucial training of Luke Skywalker to become a Jedi, the old master teaches him words of wisdom to break the reality of the hero and point out his mistakes. Establishing the core tenets of the Jedi in a simplified manner, in Star Wars Episode V The Empire Strikes Back (1980) Master Yoda says: “A Jedi uses the Force for knowledge and defense, never for attack.” Gifting him an insight into the religious creed of the Jedi, the old master ensures that the hero will not easily give in to his impulses and fall prey to the tempting acquisition of power. Alongside, as Master Yoda shows his abilities with the Force, Luke Skywalker lies mesmerized, not believing what he’s witnessing. To this denial and lack of faith within the hero, in Star Wars Episode V The Empire Strikes Back (1980) Master Yoda responds: “That is why you fail.” Here, the Jedi Master demolishes the reality of the hero, by pointing out how his lack of faith in himself and the will of the Force are a grave mistake that will lead to his undoing. Thereafter, in Star Wars Episode V The Empire Strikes Back (1980) Master Yoda instructs: “Do. Or do not. There is no try.” With these pivotal words of wisdom, the old master demands Luke Skywalker to pledge himself wholly to embarking on The Hero’s Journey to surpass the challenges ahead. Finding purpose, the hero is devoted to the completion of his training, becoming a Jedi Knight who believes in himself and the will of the Force. In the end, Luke Skywalker fulfills Destiny by rejecting the temptation of the Dark Side and redeeming his father, with Darth Vader overthrowing The Emperor, saving his son and the galaxy, as both complete The Mythical Hero’s Journey.

Posted in Film and Literature Analyses, The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills

The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills Part III

By: Bryan Ricardo Marini Quintana

Star Wars Episode VI Return Of The Jedi, directed by Richard Marquand

Anthropology Reinforcing Mythology

To craft the setting and story of Star Wars, George Lucas became a pupil of anthropology and mythology. Through Anthropology, The Filmmaker built the background elements of his story with fictional societies and cultures. This led to the creation of various alien species and planets. From the desert planet of Tatooine, the snow planet of Hoth and the forest moon of Endor, with harsh living conditions, to technological marvels such as the hovering settlement of Cloud City in Bespin or the technological terror such as the hovering battle station of the Death Star, for various species to inhabit. Alongside, there’s the planetwide metropolis of Coruscant, the wild jungles of Kashyyyk, the boundless oceans of Kamino, the towering spires of Geonosis and the verdurous valleys of Naboo, presenting a variety of environments that differing species roam around. At the center of the story, there are the Jedi and Sith who have clashed through a millennium with their religious creeds. Fighting for these ideals are the factions of The Rebel Alliance, which stands for freedom over tyranny, or The Separatist Alliance, which stands for control over the economy. These are contrasted by The Galactic Republic, which defends democracy and the ideals of the noble Jedi Knights, twisted into The Galactic Empire which imposes totalitarian rule and the ideals of the sinister Sith Lords.

Star Wars Episode III Revenge Of The Sith, directed by George Lucas

Going back to his years as a student of Social Sciences, George Lucas learned about the science of human beings, Anthropology. In this field, the main objective relies on studying the ancestors of a civilization in a specific time and space, exploring primarily their society and culture. Within Anthropology, there are the branches of Social Anthropology, which seeks to comprehend patterns of behaviors in societies, and Cultural Anthropology, which strives to understand the meanings, norms and values of cultures. In each branch, George Lucas found answers on how individuals in societies thrived and how achievements in cultures gave life meaning. From here arose prerogatives such as: How were societies organized? What was the relationship between behaviors and values? Why did people act in a specific manner? These key questions sparked the imagination of The Filmmaker, who sought to become a participant observant of his creation. A Long Time Ago In A Galaxy Far, Far away … George Lucas created varied alien species who inhabited a multitude of planets and took sides with differing factions that encompassed the societies and cultures of Star Wars, crafting the setting of the story. Such a feat of imagination was achieved through the use of an Anthropological Setting comprised of religious, magical and artistic expressions within cultures that became the background elements of the Mythological Story.

Posted in Film and Literature Analyses, The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills

The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills Part II

By: Bryan Ricardo Marini Quintana

Behind The Scenes Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope,
George Lucas and Mark Hamill (Luke Skywalker)

The Filmmaker

Growing up with a passion for adventure stories, George Lucas was keen on pursuing a career in Art School; without approval from his parents the young man opted to enroll into Social Sciences at Modesto Junior College. During his time there, George Lucas studied anthropology, acquiring a fascination over societies and their cultures. Afterward, by 1966 The Filmmaker graduated with a bachelor’s degree from the film department at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, accomplishing his dream. To gain an insight into these formative years, there was an in-depth interview by Paulette Beet with George Lucas on July 24, 2013, found in the National Endowment for the Arts, serving as an entryway into the creative mind of The Filmmaker:

“NEA: How did you evolve from being a kid who liked to draw things to being a filmmaker?

LUCAS: Well, I started out wanting to be an illustrator, and then I was interested in photography and things like that, but mostly I liked building cars, and I spent a lot of time building things, you know woodworking and things like that when I was little. In high school I was working, basically, building racing cars and things and got in a bad accident and almost got killed, and decided I would reorient my life. And so I went to college and mainly studied social sciences, primarily anthropology. I was there for two years at a junior college, and then I wanted to go on to go to Art Center in Los Angeles to be an illustrator. My father absolutely disapproved and said, “You can do it, but I’m not going to pay for it.” So I decided I’d go to San Francisco State and study anthropology and possibly become an anthropologist, whatever that meant.”

Poster for the film THX 1138

In his early years as an inexperienced and experimental filmmaker, George Lucas used his skills as an amateur storyteller and a pupil of anthropology to tell a compelling narrative set against the backdrop of a dystopian future, in the film THX 1138 (1971). With his first feature film, George Lucas adapted his student project into a full-length film, presenting a society that’s become dehumanized due to being enslaved by machinery. The ambition of the project alongside its powerful story and setting, studying human beings from a societal and cultural standpoint in an uncertain future, seemed to have been difficult for critics and audiences to digest. Even though THX 1138 wasn’t a success, it was a testament to what George Lucas could accomplish with his skills as a filmmaker, storyteller and pupil of anthropology.

Poster for the film American Graffiti

In his second film, American Graffiti (1973), George Lucas changed the story to be set in the 1960s, reminiscing on the shenanigans of teenage life in California. Nevertheless, The Filmmaker managed to conduct a study of society and culture, but with a rosy tint on the screen that gained the film praise from critics and audiences alike, making it a success. Therefore, George Lucas used his skills as a storyteller to entertain the audience with an easily digestible film, whilst he conducted an anthropological study on the lives of teenagers in their days of rock’n’roll and cruising. In the same in-depth interview by Paulette Beet with George Lucas on July 24, 2013, found in the National Endowment for the Arts, they discussed the influence of anthropology in the stories told by The Filmmaker:

“NEA: I’m interested that you started out by studying anthropology. Do you think that has informed your work as a filmmaker?

LUCAS: Yes, pretty much everything I do is anthropologically based. All the stories, or a lot of the things I’ve learned and studied in anthropology I’ve continued on with because I’m very curious about why humanity is the way it is and why societies are built around the ideas that they’re built around and all that sort of thing.”

Throwing aside the dystopian society and cruising culture, George Lucas gazed at the boundless unknown of space, as the brightness of the stars glimmered back and sparked an idea. Within the confines of his imagination, The Filmmaker began to craft a story that contained not only an anthropological study of the human condition, but also integrated the driving force of The Space Opera, myth. These stories gave meaning to civilizations, allowing them to form an identity through cultures that harbored narratives of heroes venturing to the unknown in search of Destiny. Through the work of Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, George Lucas adapted these old stories into a series of films that became The Modern Myth, Star Wars.

Posters for Star Wars: A New Hope, The Empire Strikes Back and Return Of The Jedi

The story is divided into two parts, The Original Trilogy with Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope (1977), Episode V The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Episode VI Return Of The Jedi (1983), followed by The Prequel Trilogy with Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace (1999), Episode II Attack Of The Clones (2002) and Episode III Revenge Of The Sith (2005). At the backdrop of the Saga is the anthropological study of the societies and cultures inhabiting the galaxy. On one side, there’s the struggle between The Galactic Empire, which seeks to dominate through tyranny, versus The Rebel Alliance, which fights for liberty by sparking defiance against oppression. Meanwhile, there’s the conflict between The Galactic Republic, which seeks to uphold peace and democracy, versus The Separatists Alliance, which fights to overthrow the government to impose a regime and monopoly with their corporations. Beyond these factions, there is however a deeper element of mysticism and magic that’s embodied in the conflict of a millennium between good and evil. These are the mythical forces of the Jedi and Sith, embroiled with their religious creeds that make them mortal enemies who dabble in wielding mastery over the Light or Dark Side of the Force. This eternal duel of noble knights and power-hungry sorcerers reaches its climactic end in the story of The Skywalker Family, as father and son leave the familiar behind to face challenges in the unknown, undertaking The Mythical Hero’s Journey. Furthermore, in the same in-depth interview by Paulette Beet with George Lucas on July 24, 2013, found in the National Endowment for the Arts, they discussed the inspiration behind the story of Star Wars:

“NEA: I think it’s fair to say that the Star Wars Trilogy, the original, is one of the most iconic suites of films in cinema. I’m curious as to the inspiration behind it.

LUCAS: What happened is I did a film, American Graffiti, which was a kind of anthropological work on a phenomenon unique to the United States which is cruising. And so I did that and it had such a profound effect on the audience I got all kinds of people saying, “You changed my life,” and all that sort of thing. I said, “Well this is a good thing, and maybe I’ll do another film now for younger people, for twelve-year-olds.” I wanted to make it a modern myth, and take old myths, take the psychological motifs from old mythology, and see if they were still functioning in today’s world. So I constructed a movie around that, which was to use a contemporary form, which was in this case kind of a space opera, and you know, construct the story out of these old mythological motifs. So, that’s really how the whole thing started.”

Posters for Star Wars: The Phantom Menace, Attack Of The Clones and Revenge Of The Sith

Through The Hero’s Journey of father and son, old mythologies were adapted into a story about The Skywalker Family. Venturing to the unknown of space, George Lucas told a story of The Family Tragedy, as he used old mythologies that manifested across civilizations, to pass on a generational tale of heroes who received a call to adventure, faced challenges in their path and fulfilled Destiny. In 1977, Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope was released in theaters and The Modern Myth was born, as the film achieved resounding success, forming the foundation of The Original Trilogy. By 1999, Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace was released in theaters and The Space Opera was completed, as the film continued the generational story, forming the foundation of The Prequel Trilogy. Hence, Star Wars became engrained into American Pop-Culture through the story of The Skywalker Family that turned into The Modern Myth, being passed on from generation to generation. In another interview by Bill Moyers on June 18, 1999, The Mythology of ‘Star Wars’ with George Lucas, they discussed the story and influence behind the myth:

“BILL MOYERS: I wanted to know why he thought the “Star Wars” saga had grasped such a hold on our collective imaginations. Over the course of an afternoon, we talked about myths and movies, fathers and sons, fantasy and imagination.

Joseph Campbell said that all the great myths, the primitive myths, the great stories, have to be regenerated if they’re going to have any impact, and that you have done that with “Star Wars.” Are you conscious of doing that? Are you saying, ‘I am trying to cre — recreate the myths of old? Or are you saying, ‘I just want to make a good action movie?’

GEORGE LUCAS: Well, when I did “Star Wars” I consciously set about to recreate myths and the — and the classic mythological motifs. And I wanted to use those motifs to deal with issues that existed today.”

Behind The Scenes Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace,
George Lucas and Jake Lloyd (Anakin Skywalker)
Posted in Film and Literature Analyses, The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills

The Story of Star Wars as taken from the Journal of the Whills Part I

By: Bryan Ricardo Marini Quintana

Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope, directed by George Lucas

What is The Hero’s Journey? What is Mythology? What is Anthropology? 

How did these mould The Modern Myth set A Long Time Ago In A Galaxy Far, Far away …?

The Story of Star Wars revolves around The Mythical Hero’s Journey of father and son, being Anakin and Luke Skywalker. This Monomyth is a Story Structure that embarks the protagonist on an adventure to traverse the depths of the unknown, face challenges along the way and achieve Destiny by confronting the peril outside and the fear within. Growing up fascinated by mythology and anthropology, George Lucas studied how societies, in their search for meaning, developed into civilizations by sculpting an identity that became a symbol of their culture, in which they embedded fantastical stories revolving around heroic figures. From these myths, George Lucas derived The Hero’s Journey, applying it to Star Wars by recounting a story that adhered to an old tradition of characters that through fulfilling Destiny they embraced their Doom. Ultimately, drawing from the work of Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, George Lucas moulded The Skywalker Tragedy set A Long Time Ago In A Galaxy Far, Far away …

The Mythologist

Joseph Campbell teaching a class, Joseph Campbell Foundation

Raised as a Roman Catholic and intrigued by Native American Culture from an early age, Joseph Campbell showed a profound fascination with how religion and mythology shaped civilizations. This innate inquisitiveness lead Joseph Campbell to study in the humanities field, graduating from Columbia University with a bachelor’s in English Literature in 1925 and a master’s in Medieval Literature in 1927. Alongside, in his master’s thesis, Joseph Campbell wrote a comparison between Arthurian Legends and Native American Myths. Further on, The Mythologist studied Medieval French Literature at the University of Paris along with Sanskrit and Indo-European Philosophy at the University of Munich. The previous academic experience prepared Joseph Campbell to be a college professor of literature and an expert in comparative mythology that merged differing fields of study such as archaeology, anthropology, psychology, history and art to make a theory on the origins along with meanings of mythological themes across the globe.

This theory manifested into The Hero’s Journey, a key pattern identified by Joseph Campbell in various civilizations across history, which he explored in The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Through this renowned work, Joseph Campbell presented how myth and plot were interwoven. Meaning that heroes of various cultures shared a common sequence of events, with the plot being a basis of their myths found across civilizations. Therefore, Joseph Campbell defined myth as the journey into the unknown, a new path that branched into the uncharted world in which heroes must traverse its depths, leaving behind the safety of home to rediscover themselves and seek Destiny.